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mapa strony: Start. arrow Manuał aptekarski arrow 03.2010 - "Z cyklu napoje fermentowane - kefir."


03.2010 - "Z cyklu napoje fermentowane - kefir." Drukuj Email
marzec 2010, nr 43/21 online

    W obecnych czasach, kiedy coraz częściej zwraca się uwagę na spożywanie żywności o walorach prozdrowotnych, można zaobserwować wzrost zainteresowania produktami mlecznymi, szczególnie kefirem.

    W zależności od pochodzenia mleka, warunków klimatycznych oraz zwyczajów regionalnych, powstało wiele różnych napojów fermentowanych. Kefir był wyrabiany tradycyjnie na Kaukazie, jogurt w Bułgarii, leben w Syrii i Egipcie, kumys pochodzi ze stepów nadwołżańskich, a huślanka z Karpat wschodnich [3].

   Mleczne napoje fermentowane produkowane są pod różnymi postaciami: jako żele, napoje lub pasty. Podstawowym  kryterium  podziału napojów jest rodzaj użytej mikroflory. W krajach o ciepłym klimacie wykorzystywano mikroflorę termofilną, a w krajach o umiarkowanym i zimnym - mleko ukwaszano bakteriami mezofilnymi. Bardzo często mezofilnymi bakteriom współtowarzyszą drożdże i wtedy wytwarzanie mlecznych napojów fermentowanych odbywa się dzięki fermentacji mieszanej mleczno – alkoholowej. W tym przypadku dodatkowo powstają dwutlenek węgla i alkohol etylowy nadające specyficzny, ostrzejszy posmak drożdżowy. W krajach skandynawskich rozpowszechniły się ciągliwe mleka, fermentowane przez paciorkowce. W Polsce typowy reprezentantem tej grupy jest zsiadłe mleko lub ukwaszona maślanka. Typowym produktem uzyskanym w wyniku fermentacji mieszanej jest kefir. Zgodnie z definicją zawartą w PN-A-86061:2002 [6] „kefir jest to mleko fermentowane zawierające użytą do fermentacji charakterystyczną mikroflorę ziaren kefirowych z gatunku Lactobacillus kefir, rodzaju Leuconostoc, rodzaju Lactococcus i Acetobacter oraz drożdże fermentujące laktozę - Kluyveromyces marxianus i niefermentujące laktozy Saccharomyces unisporus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces exiguus, żyjące w ścisłej symbiozie”.
   Kefir tradycyjnie jest przygotowywany przy pomocy grzybków kefirowych (ziaren kefirowych) [9]. W ziarnach kefirowych jednym z głównych węglowodanów jest rozpuszczalny w wodzie kefiran. To zooglea - twór żyjących w symbiozie pałeczek mlekowych tj. Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens i Lactobacillus kefir [4]. Kefiran tworzy specyficzną strukturę ziaren. Zawiera równe części glukozy i galaktozy [5].



Związek strukturalny- kefiran (http://topicstock.pantip.com)
Ziarna kefirowe -  Wikimedia Commons, fot. - A. Kniesel

   Kefir  obfity jest w witaminę B1, B12, wapń, aminokwasy, kwas foliowy i witaminę K oraz biotynę. Witaminy z grupy B odpowiedzialne są za prawidłowe funkcjonowanie wątroby, nerek, układu nerwowego oraz pomagają w schorzeniach skóry [6]. Z rozważań Kneifel i Meyer z roku 1991 wynika, że w czasie produkcji kefiru znacznie zwiększają się ilości pirydoksyny, witaminy B12, kwasu foliowego oraz biotyny, natomiast zmniejszają się ilości tiaminy i ryboflawiny [2].
   Kefir jest naturalnym probiotykiem, czyli zawiera żywe organizmy, które pozytywnie wpływają na zdrowie. Oprócz tego kefir należy do grupy żywności funkcjonalnej, która jest częścią codziennej diety oraz posiada wysokie wartości odżywcze, redukuje ryzyko wystąpienia chorób chronicznych i korzystnie wpływa na zdrowie organizmu [2, 6].
   Właściwości dietetyczne, odżywcze, a nawet lecznicze, kefir zawdzięcza bogatemu składowi drobnoustrojów, który zawierają ziarna kefirowe użyte do jego produkcji. Procesy biochemiczne, zachodzące podczas produkcji kefiru, powodują podniesienie jego wartości odżywczej. Złożone procesy fermentacyjne są poprzedzone hydrolizą laktozy, co zachodzi przy udziale enzymu β-galaktozydazy, wytwarzanego przez bakterie mlekowe [3].
   Kefir stymuluje układ odpornościowy poprzez obecność bakterii probiotycznych, dobrze przyswajalnych białek, witamin i minerałów, dzięki czemu może być stosowany przy leczeniu pacjentów chorych na AIDS [6].
   FAO i WHO w 2001 roku zaproponowało skład kefiru bazując na mikrobiologicznej kompozycji ziaren kefirowych i finalnego produktu, co przedstawia poniższe zestawienie [1, 2].

Tabela 1. Podstawowy skład kefiru

 *kliknij, aby powiększyć

   Kefir można zastosować w diecie dla ludzi z nietolerancją laktozy, ze względu na jej niski poziom. Kefir jest bogaty w drożdże i bakterie, które zapewniają laktazę, czyli enzym, który rozkłada większość laktozy pozostałej po procesie fermentacji. Oprócz tego hamuje rozwój szeregu gram-dodatnich i gram-ujemnych bakterii, dzięki obecności takich składników jak kwasy organiczne, ditlenek węgla, etanol, diacetyl i bakteriocyny. Składniki te posiadają funkcje zdrowotne nie tylko ze względu na eliminację patogenów w żywności podczas jej produkcji i przechowywania, ale również poprzez korzystne działanie na równowagę bakteryjną w przewodzie pokarmowym [2,6].
   Wykazano, że kefir posiada również aktywność przeciwnowotworową, wynikającą głównie ze zdolności niektórych szczepów do hamowania rozwoju bakterii fekalnych, co obniża produkcję tzw. enzymów fekalnych (β-glukoronidazy, nitroreduktazy, azoreduktazy), które przekształcają komórki zdrowe w komórki rakowe. Oprócz tego bakterie mlekowe mają zdolność biodegradacji azotynów, co zmniejsza ryzyko powstawania kancerogennych nitrozoamin [3]. Są również doniesienia o antybakteryjnym, fungistatycznym i antynowotworowym działaniu kefiranu. [8].
   Spożywanie kefiru wpływa też pozytywnie na perystaltykę jelit, rekomendowany jest on dla kobiet w ciąży i matek karmiących. Jest zalecany również do łagodzenia skutków nadużywania alkoholu. Świeży kefir ma właściwości stymulujące motorykę przewodu pokarmowego i oczyszczanie go z resztek pokarmowych, podczas gdy mleko, serwatka, sery i masło mają efekt odwrotny [10].

Tabela 2. Lecznicze właściwości mikroflory ziaren kefirowych [5]


*kliknij, aby powiększyć

  Według Fesnak [3] produkcja kefiru w Polsce od 1996 roku rozwija się bardzo dynamicznie, a spożycie kefiru jest porównywalne ze spożyciem jogurtu.

Podsumowując, kefir warto spożywać, ponieważ wpływa on na:
•    lepszą przyswajalność składników mleka
•    wzbogacenie diety w witaminy, zwłaszcza z grupy B
•    lepsze wykorzystanie laktozy przez ludzi o złym przyswajaniu tego cukru
•    hamowanie mikroflory gnilnej i chorobotwórczej w przewodzie pokarmowym
•    regulację przemiany materii
•    obniżenie poziomu cholesterolu we krwi oraz ciśnienia tętniczego
•    rozkładanie rakotwórczych związków zanieczyszczających żywność [3].

   Kefir stanowi nie tylko „żywność ekologiczną”, ale także żywność poprawiającą stan zdrowia, dlatego zasługuje na promocję.
   Artykuł ma na celu ukazanie walorów odżywczych i leczniczych kefiru. Jeśli kefir lub inne sfermentowane napoje stałyby się istotnym składnikiem codziennej diety, umożliwiłoby to ograniczenie niektórych lekarstw działających na system immunologiczny. Ponadto kefir pobudza apetyt i wzmaga wydzielanie gruczołów trawiennych, co znakomicie działa między innymi na urodę. Wpływa również na szybszą rekonwalescencje po przebytych chorobach dzięki zawartości pożytecznych bakterii.

mgr Anna Grzegorczyk
doktorantka Uniwersytetu Rolniczego w Krakowie
Wydział Technologii Żywności
Katedra Przetwórstwa Produktów Zwierzęcych
fot. 1. Dreamstime.com

1.  FAO/WHO.1997 Codex Alimentarius Commission. Anex I: Proposed Draft Standard for Fermented Milk Products
2.    Farnworth R. E., 2005. Kefir- a complex probiotic. Food Science and Technology Bulletin: Functional Foods, 2, (1), 1-17.Fesnak, Fetliński 1996)
3.    Fesnak D., Fetliński A., 1996., Kefir to zdrowie. Przemysł Spożywczy, 10, 24-25.
4.    Irigoyen A., Arana I., Castiella M., Torre P., Ibáñez F.C., 2005. Microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory characteristics of kefir during storage. Food Chemistry, 90, 613-620.
5.    Kołakowski P., Fetliński A., Fesnak D., Stepaniak L., 2001. Właściwości kefiru. Przegląd Mleczarski, 7, 326-327
6.    Otles S., Cagindi O., 2003. Kefir: A Probiotic Dairy- Composition, Nutritional and Therapeutic Aspects. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2(2), 54-59.PN-A-86061:2002
7.    PN-A-86061:2002 Mleko i przetwory mleczne Mleko fermentowane
8.    Rodrigues K., Caputo L., Carvalho J., Evangelista J., Schneedorf J., 2005. Antimicrobial and healing activity of kefir and kefiran extract. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 25, 404-408
9.    Ziajka S., 1997. Mleczarstwo- zagadnienia wybrane. Wydawnictwo ART, Olsztyn
10.    Zubillaga M., Wiell R., Postaire E., Goldman C., Caro R., Boccio J., 2001. Effect of probiotics and functional food and their use in different diseases. Nutrition Research, 21, 569-579

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