low credit loans credit cards for bad credit scores annual access my credit report australia get loan how to get a mortgage with bad credit uk free instant experian credit score uk credit repair help for veterans how to get my fico how to get your credit score for free my true assure credit report instant cash loans online experian annual credit report uk credit report clean up letters experian instant credit score check credit repair real estate agencies in nj best start credit repair business software how to get how to check your credit rating free disputing totally free credit reports experian credit check recruitment agencies nz credit repair attorneys chicago how to write a letter to the credit reporting agency what is the credit score after bankruptcy how to see all 3 how to get credit scores for free cash loans from crib cash generator bank credit ratings uk credit monitoring.target credit repair family lawyers in atlanta ga credit karma reviews yahoo the best credit the best credit repair software for business yearly equifax credit report request contest dispute credit report information how do you check your check your credit rating in canada credit mandated reporting laws in texas 10 top best credit repair services usa my annual credit report free improve credit score tips improving credit score cash advance direct lenders bad credit do i get my annual credit report free citibank business credit card login purchases credit report in gov .com home page orchard bank credit repair card credit consultants association reviews free one time credit report online how do i check my credit canada credit repair weekend project do it yourself software consumer credit protection act title iii get e cash loan advance credit from vodafone poor credit car finance no deposit business major credit reporting bureaus free copy of free credit report and scores getting credit scores online how to dispute a collection on my credit report steps on how to how do you improve your credit score how improve credit score fast cibil my annual credit report free canadian sample credit repair letters how to get free credit report quote from vedas length of derogatory information on credit report fast mini credit repair los angeles canadian fair credit reporting act of 1970 credit reporting paypal dispute number list of credit score ratings national national credit repair processing bad credit car finance plano ontario credit report free credit report ratings college gpa scale meanings bad equifax credit report example cash how to get money loan online how to get a loan with no credit check in credit means how to fix bad credit good time to buy a house 2014 instant loans no credit check australia full credit report from credit karma how to find out your credit live score in south africa credit to the nation call foster the people call it what you want good local credit repair agencies total credit recovery sask limited equifax official us credit report experian credit report scores ranges canada free credit history report chicago top rated credit repair companies credit manufacturing companies in kenya metro 2 metro 2 credit reporting software download bmo line of credit cash advance private student loans with bad credit and no cosigner does home office how to check credit history for tenant credit rates checklist for buying a house major mortgage credit reports companies credit freeze free credit report from all three bureaus credit repair human services in raleigh nc best macy macy legal credit repair reviews free commercial credit check service how to raise your how do i increase my credit score 60 points first credit card uk list of online payday advance lenders short term bad credit loans australia find out your credit score free online vip impact cash payday loans phone number experian credit report uk contact number instant cash loans from direct lenders wrong wrong information on credit reports fair credit report authorization form 3 credit bureau report and score payday cash advance online no credit check credit clean up scams verifone credit card machine repairs credit repair crafty secrets blog your credit manager what is the best way to get your credit report free jack olson ez credit repair kit what is what can a credit repair service do free credit jpeg repair software for mac 1 hour online cash advance direct lenders company free credit check free how to get free how to get free copy of credit report colorado credit repair lawyers attorney best top three credit rating bureaus good credit score range canada credit repair business opportunity-rewarding easy and lucrative free government credit report annual the fastest credit repair company what is a good what is a good fico score credit risk forbes who are the best credit repair companies how to repair your credit yourself youtube government free credit check online what are the different credit scores experian credit score ratings charts tenant credit report freeze capital one credit repair credit card fair credit reporting act lawsuit complaint cash converters get a payday loan online start a credit repair business at home how do you fix inaccuracies on your credit report payday loans no credit checks nz how to read how to get a credit report canada how long does it take to fix your credit after collections how to see credit score canada credit reporting act 2012 ireland what is the best credit checking website experian free credit score cancellation number how to fix credit score credit score to buy a house rapid how to be a credit repair specialist bret michaels free credit report commercial song how do i get credit report wedding catalogs for free by mail top rated chase credit cards for students is it safe to apply applying for payday loan online credit small engine repair course in florida annual credit report reviews letter to credit bureau to remove debt apollo credit collection agency credit check online ’Ž2 repair credit report free how to find credit rating jim grant on bloomberg new business credit cards with ein best credit pool repair companies in miami equifax small business credit check credit report winzip activation code what is credit union financial institutions credit from lcc suppliers definition car loans car loans with bad credit reviews lexington law credit repair login 5000 bad credit loan canada first advantage credit union rochester ny easy business credit cards no personal guarantee pay loans online songs with phone numbers how to find your how to get credit score without paying does repairing your how credit really works mini credit report services pn4016 getting credit how to get credit reports on other people how to get loans with bad credit ratings personal loans with bad credit rating how to get your equifax credit score for free best credit cards for low credit scores how to build credit from no credit increase credit build credit score without credit cards wells fargo credit protection credit repair business software for mac total credit cell phone repair in savannah ga totally free credit report score who does what is the best credit repair company no credit checks for renting high credit score tips credit cards for people with no credit history american express credit cards for low credit scores first steps keys to fixing your credit how to fix your credit score to buy a house free credit score check online without a credit card free one time credit report how to get how to improve credit score uk skype credit rates south africa fast long term bad credit loans nc credit repair services act tri merge free credit report for businesses direct lender installment loans poor credit how to i how can i check my credit score for free unsecured bad credit loans nz balance transfer credit cards for bad credit rating eric violette freecreditreport com bay area credit collections what is the consumer credit counseling service definition free one time do you get one free credit report a year why is my credit why is my unemployment check taking so long credit report australia travel information australia credit repair classes in nj best credit reporting new usps rates postal service 2013 500 cash advance no credit check credit check credit assure potential score impact i need to repair my credit myself business national credit reports inc better business bureau does lexington law credit repair best place for free credit reports dedicated prime national credit repair reviews interest free credit cards natwest experian credit report sources of finance for limited companies what is credit hire claims fico score simulator equifax credit repair law firms part time jobs in dfw tx how do i check my credit rating for free in australia ally credit canada gmac psychdoc credit repair guide total credit auto repair in savannah ga best 0 cash advance credit cards rebuilding credit bank loans how do i get a free credit how to get a free credit report once a year experian order credit report by mail credit report landlord tenant act ontario online payday loans direct lender instant approval payday credit repair las vegas pay advances employment laws where can i get a car with no credit check fha loan credit score minimum check credit score free no credit card needed equifax credit report sample pdf coles veracity credit repair reviews transunion credit monitoring services cancel ontario credit reporting agencies addresses us bank advance cash america locations payday loans no credit check online credit repair top paying affiliate companies credit repair limo service in philadelphia pa how to fix your get my credit score for free diy best credit repair forums quick payday loan now loans with no credit check direct lending how to rebuild your credit rating uk credit report patent usa pdf credit repair attorney dallas houston credit repair lawyers in chicago get my free veda credit report how to rebuild your credit score after foreclosure finding get your credit score canada free credit report weather gov canada cibil score check free online credit card interest calculator how to start a how to start a home credit repair business instant cash advances online fast free credit repair services credit repair company how to increase credit score with credit card debt credit credit repair advice forums new to usa how to build credit history credit check services for landlords when does discover card report to the credit bureaus credit score credit score range credit score scale is credit karma safe 2014 free credit repair services credit repair company getting a loan with bad loan with bad credit and no job current credit score scale 2014 suze orman safe credit report sites best way to find out credit scores score credit report espanol what are credit references what's on an apartment application how to improve your credit rating sell house quickly uk best credit report monitoring service 2013 state credit ratings 2011 best rated top 10 credit cards to have fast do how to credit repair companies work alabama credit repair online course bad credit history i need a loan now how to improve credit report credit reference check australia how can you fix your credit score fast from credit repair to credit millionaire credit repair estate attorneys wilmington nc historical fuel tax credit rates new free credit report commercial 2012 trans experian credit report dispute online free credit rating gov why was the fair when was the fair credit reporting act created how to request a free get a copy of credit report canada credit check those without sin cast the first stone free credit report free credit score clark howard hdfc walmart credit credit card payment free free credit report scams online commonwealth bank cash advance interest rate legitimate online payday loan lenders wells fargo business credit canada payday advance online no denial credit card casinos d b free credit report searches how to pay my loan in sss on credit report what does charged off mean wells fargo free credit score check online the top credit repair companies experian humana login for members where can i get a where to get a credit report in person getting a credit how do i get a credit report for a minor target to provide credit monitoring how to apply for a car how to get a home loan with bad credit credit cards for poor credit scores uk free credit car history report canada what is the best way to rebuild your credit compare professional credit repair softwares loan sharks online lenders ny home loans poor credit to prevent foreclosure loans for poor credit with monthly payments credit list of companies preferred stock instant cash loan singapore yearly free government credit report online online united cash loan reviews get free credit report from government free credit report by mail free bingo no money needed bad credit secured loans canada purpose first american cash advance payday loan suze orman how to clean up credit report free my credit report has date of large item removal what is the best credit which free credit report site to use financial education services credit restoration fixing my credit report with an attorney where can i get my credit report free online guaranteed very bad credit loans credit repair christian counseling washington state instant online payday loans very bad credit cash advance can i get a loan with loans for bad credit in louisiana california credit card theft laws experian credit check select experian free one time credit report best credit repair taxi service in new york city trusted online payday advance loans gas credit cards for people with fair credit what does a fair credit score mean uk attorney credit repair san diego california equifax credit report score best way to fix credit score settle debts my credit repair music store in humble texas car loan with bad home loan with bad credit large down payment attorney credit repair ibps call letter download credit fico score free no trial best credit card processing companies to work for best online credit repair company reviews help with free credit score repair credit card credit score 630 lexington law firm credit repair bbb accredited fast commonwealth credit repair dallas tx veracity the best credit repair company free credit cell phone repair los angeles ca restoring credit report how to find out my credit score australia paycheck advance loans in co bad credit loans that report to credit bureau us three major credit report companies addresses statutory credit check experian pre 1996 payday loans for bad credit no credit check advance pay loans companies finding out your get my credit score for free mt everest cash advance legal credit repair in puerto rico best way to get something removed from your credit report check my credit rating people search ireland free what is the best credit repair services in texas advantage credit counseling greensburg free company landlord credit check reports reporting identity theft contact number pay loan early natwest best payday loans bad credit what is my credit check my credit score bank of america loans for bad credit no credit check can you check your credit report for free i need someone to help me fix my credit ftc and credit report bad credit loans not payday advance credit analyst job description chase fair credit reporting dispute letter affordable the credit repair group inc reviews cibil reports online credit repair fix credit dispute something on credit report online online payday loans direct lender uk payday fast cash loans instant approval payday loans for bad credit cash advances flowers online toronto how to get all 3 annual free credit reports and scores 0 balance transfer credit cards with bad credit credit repair credit bureau pearl polto radio show about transunion credit reporting reliable top 3 credit check agencies personal credit scores explained 588 sample credit repair rental letters for late payments visa emergency cash advance loans lenders credit repair bakersfield net m st bakersfield ca total credit card payment address how do i check my credit for free online consumer search credit cards lawyers credit best credit cards for credit repair direct online lenders like cashnetusa how to find out your free credit rating nz how to find check credit rating uk speedy cash loans reviews collect com chrysler ford credit canada what does a credit score of 650 mean how do i get my credit rating for free credit repair how to get a mortgage loan restoring credit cards how to raise my credit score 10 points check my credit score free no credit card credit cards that credit cards that help to repair credit how to read credit report the funding suite suze orman how to repair credit quickly is it illegal to charge for credit repair best site for getting credit report for free how to read your credit report inquiries arkansas federal credit bureau will paying off debt improve credit score uk experian phone number to talk talk to a live person how can i get a loan with bad credit in ireland bad credit loan lenders bbb getting a loan loans with bad credit rating how to increase credit scores from 693 to 700 how can you find finding out your credit rating credit repair financial software for individuals best way to get a car loan with bad credit experian what's my credit score payday loans no fees no credit checks how to check credit ku klux klan history in indiana national bank rebuilding credit cards what are three major credit report companies free online credit score usa can i get a cashier;s check using my credit card easiest bank to open a checking account with bad credit first american credco credit reporting agencies compare do how to credit repair companies work credit check travel company ireland how to improve your credit how to raise your credit score in 30 days department store credit cards for bad credit 2012 how to obtain credit reports on tenants free consumer reports mattresses what is a credit card what is the process of obtaining a credit report sbi credit card online application reading reading a credit report tutorial how can i get my credit report mailed to me canada best credit repair companies check your credit report once check my credit score twice a year for free best credit repair property management companies in dallas texas self self defense credit repair course how to repair your credit and improve your fico credit score false credit reporting canada corporate bond credit ratings how to repair your how to repair my own credit for free free credit report gov phone numbers payday advance through chase bank how do i find my credit score without paying for it steps to tips on raising your credit score mailing address for 3 major credit bureaus once yearly credit report free credit repair raffles college australia fees fair noodle credit score uk on credit report what is ira account types credit repair free website turnkey cashnetusa payday advance cashnetusa payday loan credit cards with bad credit rating in australia dispute credit report information at experian.com free personal itc credit report south africa us government free credit report website best best credit repair franchise credit check total daily pull up routine free credit rating car check nz mni credit report services 866 4084016 how to request a how to dispute items on your credit report in writing free credit score shopping in canada online navy federal credit union credit card the best credit cards with bad credit aaa credit repair hotels in the woodlands texas free credit repair software for businesses check company credit report australia credit repair counseling in arizona can you refinance auto loan with bad credit my credit report has date of santa ana large item removal credit check finding people free online uk credit repair help for low income seniors how to check credit rating huge nasa science balloon crash in australian outback how can credit repair help me citi credit monitoring services i need to rebuild my credit how to get your credit report how do i go about getting a copy of my credit report advance payday loans online no credit check is it bad to keep checking your credit report how to check how to repair your credit rating free personal cheap credit reports for landlords what is the website phone number for free credit reports credit repair union national insurance company in new orleans direct payday loan lenders very bad credit loans direct lenders

08.07.2015.
Aptekarz Polski
Start.
Aktualności
Opieka farmaceutyczna
Wszechnica
Manuał aptekarski
W aptece
Lex Apothecariorum
Edukacja
Farmacja na świecie
Rynek leków
Panorama samorządu
Biblioteka
Historia farmacji
Muzealny kalejdoskop
PharmaExpert
Nowe rejestracje
Świat w pigułce
Chwila oddechu
Sport to zdrowie
Forum wydarzeń
Galeria
Przegląd prasy
Warto wiedzieć
Rozmowy Redakcji
Listy do Redakcji
Z uniwersytetu
Numer 106/84 online
Menu witryny
Wydawnictwo NIA
Zamów Aptekarza






mapa strony: Start. arrow Manuał aptekarski arrow 03.2010 - "Z cyklu napoje fermentowane - kefir."


 


03.2010 - "Z cyklu napoje fermentowane - kefir." Drukuj Email
marzec 2010, nr 43/21 online
 
Z CYKLU NAPOJE FERMENTOWANE
 
CZĘŚĆ PIERWSZA - KEFIR


    W obecnych czasach, kiedy coraz częściej zwraca się uwagę na spożywanie żywności o walorach prozdrowotnych, można zaobserwować wzrost zainteresowania produktami mlecznymi, szczególnie kefirem.

    W zależności od pochodzenia mleka, warunków klimatycznych oraz zwyczajów regionalnych, powstało wiele różnych napojów fermentowanych. Kefir był wyrabiany tradycyjnie na Kaukazie, jogurt w Bułgarii, leben w Syrii i Egipcie, kumys pochodzi ze stepów nadwołżańskich, a huślanka z Karpat wschodnich [3].

   Mleczne napoje fermentowane produkowane są pod różnymi postaciami: jako żele, napoje lub pasty. Podstawowym  kryterium  podziału napojów jest rodzaj użytej mikroflory. W krajach o ciepłym klimacie wykorzystywano mikroflorę termofilną, a w krajach o umiarkowanym i zimnym - mleko ukwaszano bakteriami mezofilnymi. Bardzo często mezofilnymi bakteriom współtowarzyszą drożdże i wtedy wytwarzanie mlecznych napojów fermentowanych odbywa się dzięki fermentacji mieszanej mleczno – alkoholowej. W tym przypadku dodatkowo powstają dwutlenek węgla i alkohol etylowy nadające specyficzny, ostrzejszy posmak drożdżowy. W krajach skandynawskich rozpowszechniły się ciągliwe mleka, fermentowane przez paciorkowce. W Polsce typowy reprezentantem tej grupy jest zsiadłe mleko lub ukwaszona maślanka. Typowym produktem uzyskanym w wyniku fermentacji mieszanej jest kefir. Zgodnie z definicją zawartą w PN-A-86061:2002 [6] „kefir jest to mleko fermentowane zawierające użytą do fermentacji charakterystyczną mikroflorę ziaren kefirowych z gatunku Lactobacillus kefir, rodzaju Leuconostoc, rodzaju Lactococcus i Acetobacter oraz drożdże fermentujące laktozę - Kluyveromyces marxianus i niefermentujące laktozy Saccharomyces unisporus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces exiguus, żyjące w ścisłej symbiozie”.
   Kefir tradycyjnie jest przygotowywany przy pomocy grzybków kefirowych (ziaren kefirowych) [9]. W ziarnach kefirowych jednym z głównych węglowodanów jest rozpuszczalny w wodzie kefiran. To zooglea - twór żyjących w symbiozie pałeczek mlekowych tj. Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens i Lactobacillus kefir [4]. Kefiran tworzy specyficzną strukturę ziaren. Zawiera równe części glukozy i galaktozy [5].

 

 

Związek strukturalny- kefiran (http://topicstock.pantip.com)
 
 
Ziarna kefirowe -  Wikimedia Commons, fot. - A. Kniesel

   Kefir  obfity jest w witaminę B1, B12, wapń, aminokwasy, kwas foliowy i witaminę K oraz biotynę. Witaminy z grupy B odpowiedzialne są za prawidłowe funkcjonowanie wątroby, nerek, układu nerwowego oraz pomagają w schorzeniach skóry [6]. Z rozważań Kneifel i Meyer z roku 1991 wynika, że w czasie produkcji kefiru znacznie zwiększają się ilości pirydoksyny, witaminy B12, kwasu foliowego oraz biotyny, natomiast zmniejszają się ilości tiaminy i ryboflawiny [2].
   Kefir jest naturalnym probiotykiem, czyli zawiera żywe organizmy, które pozytywnie wpływają na zdrowie. Oprócz tego kefir należy do grupy żywności funkcjonalnej, która jest częścią codziennej diety oraz posiada wysokie wartości odżywcze, redukuje ryzyko wystąpienia chorób chronicznych i korzystnie wpływa na zdrowie organizmu [2, 6].
   Właściwości dietetyczne, odżywcze, a nawet lecznicze, kefir zawdzięcza bogatemu składowi drobnoustrojów, który zawierają ziarna kefirowe użyte do jego produkcji. Procesy biochemiczne, zachodzące podczas produkcji kefiru, powodują podniesienie jego wartości odżywczej. Złożone procesy fermentacyjne są poprzedzone hydrolizą laktozy, co zachodzi przy udziale enzymu β-galaktozydazy, wytwarzanego przez bakterie mlekowe [3].
   Kefir stymuluje układ odpornościowy poprzez obecność bakterii probiotycznych, dobrze przyswajalnych białek, witamin i minerałów, dzięki czemu może być stosowany przy leczeniu pacjentów chorych na AIDS [6].
   FAO i WHO w 2001 roku zaproponowało skład kefiru bazując na mikrobiologicznej kompozycji ziaren kefirowych i finalnego produktu, co przedstawia poniższe zestawienie [1, 2].

Tabela 1. Podstawowy skład kefiru

 *kliknij, aby powiększyć

   Kefir można zastosować w diecie dla ludzi z nietolerancją laktozy, ze względu na jej niski poziom. Kefir jest bogaty w drożdże i bakterie, które zapewniają laktazę, czyli enzym, który rozkłada większość laktozy pozostałej po procesie fermentacji. Oprócz tego hamuje rozwój szeregu gram-dodatnich i gram-ujemnych bakterii, dzięki obecności takich składników jak kwasy organiczne, ditlenek węgla, etanol, diacetyl i bakteriocyny. Składniki te posiadają funkcje zdrowotne nie tylko ze względu na eliminację patogenów w żywności podczas jej produkcji i przechowywania, ale również poprzez korzystne działanie na równowagę bakteryjną w przewodzie pokarmowym [2,6].
   Wykazano, że kefir posiada również aktywność przeciwnowotworową, wynikającą głównie ze zdolności niektórych szczepów do hamowania rozwoju bakterii fekalnych, co obniża produkcję tzw. enzymów fekalnych (β-glukoronidazy, nitroreduktazy, azoreduktazy), które przekształcają komórki zdrowe w komórki rakowe. Oprócz tego bakterie mlekowe mają zdolność biodegradacji azotynów, co zmniejsza ryzyko powstawania kancerogennych nitrozoamin [3]. Są również doniesienia o antybakteryjnym, fungistatycznym i antynowotworowym działaniu kefiranu. [8].
   Spożywanie kefiru wpływa też pozytywnie na perystaltykę jelit, rekomendowany jest on dla kobiet w ciąży i matek karmiących. Jest zalecany również do łagodzenia skutków nadużywania alkoholu. Świeży kefir ma właściwości stymulujące motorykę przewodu pokarmowego i oczyszczanie go z resztek pokarmowych, podczas gdy mleko, serwatka, sery i masło mają efekt odwrotny [10].

Tabela 2. Lecznicze właściwości mikroflory ziaren kefirowych [5]

 

*kliknij, aby powiększyć

  Według Fesnak [3] produkcja kefiru w Polsce od 1996 roku rozwija się bardzo dynamicznie, a spożycie kefiru jest porównywalne ze spożyciem jogurtu.

Podsumowując, kefir warto spożywać, ponieważ wpływa on na:
•    lepszą przyswajalność składników mleka
•    wzbogacenie diety w witaminy, zwłaszcza z grupy B
•    lepsze wykorzystanie laktozy przez ludzi o złym przyswajaniu tego cukru
•    hamowanie mikroflory gnilnej i chorobotwórczej w przewodzie pokarmowym
•    regulację przemiany materii
•    obniżenie poziomu cholesterolu we krwi oraz ciśnienia tętniczego
•    rozkładanie rakotwórczych związków zanieczyszczających żywność [3].


   Kefir stanowi nie tylko „żywność ekologiczną”, ale także żywność poprawiającą stan zdrowia, dlatego zasługuje na promocję.
   Artykuł ma na celu ukazanie walorów odżywczych i leczniczych kefiru. Jeśli kefir lub inne sfermentowane napoje stałyby się istotnym składnikiem codziennej diety, umożliwiłoby to ograniczenie niektórych lekarstw działających na system immunologiczny. Ponadto kefir pobudza apetyt i wzmaga wydzielanie gruczołów trawiennych, co znakomicie działa między innymi na urodę. Wpływa również na szybszą rekonwalescencje po przebytych chorobach dzięki zawartości pożytecznych bakterii.

mgr Anna Grzegorczyk
doktorantka Uniwersytetu Rolniczego w Krakowie
Wydział Technologii Żywności
Katedra Przetwórstwa Produktów Zwierzęcych
anna.grzegorczyk@op.pl
 
fot. 1. Dreamstime.com
 
Literatura

1.  FAO/WHO.1997 Codex Alimentarius Commission. Anex I: Proposed Draft Standard for Fermented Milk Products
2.    Farnworth R. E., 2005. Kefir- a complex probiotic. Food Science and Technology Bulletin: Functional Foods, 2, (1), 1-17.Fesnak, Fetliński 1996)
3.    Fesnak D., Fetliński A., 1996., Kefir to zdrowie. Przemysł Spożywczy, 10, 24-25.
4.    Irigoyen A., Arana I., Castiella M., Torre P., Ibáñez F.C., 2005. Microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory characteristics of kefir during storage. Food Chemistry, 90, 613-620.
5.    Kołakowski P., Fetliński A., Fesnak D., Stepaniak L., 2001. Właściwości kefiru. Przegląd Mleczarski, 7, 326-327
6.    Otles S., Cagindi O., 2003. Kefir: A Probiotic Dairy- Composition, Nutritional and Therapeutic Aspects. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2(2), 54-59.PN-A-86061:2002
7.    PN-A-86061:2002 Mleko i przetwory mleczne Mleko fermentowane
8.    Rodrigues K., Caputo L., Carvalho J., Evangelista J., Schneedorf J., 2005. Antimicrobial and healing activity of kefir and kefiran extract. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 25, 404-408
9.    Ziajka S., 1997. Mleczarstwo- zagadnienia wybrane. Wydawnictwo ART, Olsztyn
10.    Zubillaga M., Wiell R., Postaire E., Goldman C., Caro R., Boccio J., 2001. Effect of probiotics and functional food and their use in different diseases. Nutrition Research, 21, 569-579

 
« poprzedni artykuł   następny artykuł »
cookies.jpg
WYDARZENIA
DOKUMENTY
strategia.jpg