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mapa strony: Start. arrow Manuał aptekarski arrow 12.2010 - "Udar niedokrwienny mózgu, patogeneza i leczenie."


12.2010 - "Udar niedokrwienny mózgu, patogeneza i leczenie." Drukuj Email

grudzień 2010, nr 52/30 online






    Udar mózgu to zespół objawów neurologicznych o nagłym początku, ogniskowych (np. deficyty ruchowe, zaburzenia mowy) lub uogólnionych (np. zaburzenia przytomności), które utrzymują się powyżej 24 godzin (jeśli wcześniej nie prowadzą do śmierci) i mają przyczynę naczyniową. Udar mózgu jest drugą co do częstości przyczyną zgonów i najczęstszą przyczyną niesprawności osób dorosłych. Rocznie na świecie około 15 milionów ludzi doznaje udaru mózgu; około 30% z nich umiera w przebiegu tej choroby, a 30% jest niesprawnych już do końca życia. W Polsce na udar choruje rocznie ok. 60 000 osób.

   Udar mózgu jest stanem zagrożenia życia, podobnie jak zawał serca. Ryzyko zachorowania na udar wzrasta wraz z wiekiem i jest większe u osób z nadciśnieniem tętniczym, cukrzycą, migotaniem przedsionków i innymi chorobami serca, otyłością czy u palaczy papierosów. Udar znacząco pogarsza jakość życia chorych, nie tylko ze względu na niesprawność fizyczną i deficyty mowy; zwiększa też ryzyko wystąpienia innych chorób, np. padaczki, otępienia, depresji czy przewlekłych zespołów bólowych.

   Z punktu widzenia patofizjologii choroby wyróżnia się dwa rodzaje udaru mózgu, udar niedokrwienny i udar krwotoczny. Udar niedokrwienny stanowi około 80% wszystkich udarów, pozostałe przypadki to udar krwotoczny. Udary niedokrwienne są spowodowane zamknięciem światła naczynia doprowadzającego krew do określonego obszaru mózgu lub też, jak to się dzieje w przypadkach nagłego zatrzymania krążenia, do całego mózgu.  Udary krwotoczne są konsekwencją pęknięcia naczynia i „wylewu” krwi do mózgu. Rozróżnienie udaru niedokrwiennego i krwotocznego jest możliwe z dużym prawdopodobieństwem przez doświadczonego klinicystę, ale rozpoznanie bez żadnych wątpliwości można postawić tylko po wykonaniu obrazowania mózgu za pomocą tomografii komputerowej lub rezonansu magnetycznego.

   W około 70% przypadków udarów niedokrwiennych wykonanie standardowego panelu powszechnie dostępnych badań diagnostycznych (ultrasonografia tętnic domózgowych i wewnątrzczaszkowych, EKG, echokardiografia przezklatkowa i przezprzełykowa, 24-godzinne monitorowanie rytmu serca czy badania w kierunku obecności wrodzonych stanów prozakrzepowych) pozwala na zidentyfikowanie przyczyny tej choroby. Najczęściej udar niedokrwienny jest spowodowany zatorem pochodzenia sercowego (udar sercowo-zatorowy) lub z dużych naczyń doprowadzających krew do mózgu (choroba dużych naczyń mózgowych), albo zwyrodnieniem drobnych naczyń doprowadzających krew do głębokich struktur mózgu (choroba małych naczyń mózgowych). Należy pamiętać, że udar mózgu w około 5% przypadków może wystąpić także u ludzi w młodszym wieku (20-40 lat). Wtedy najczęściej jego przyczyną są zatory pochodzenia sercowego, rozwarstwienie naczyń domózgowych  i/lub mózgowych czy choroby wrodzone, których jednym z objawów jest udar mózgu. Niestety, w około 30% przypadków, mimo intensywnych poszukiwań diagnostycznych, rozpoznanie przyczyny udaru nie jest możliwe. Cały czas, wiele ośrodków na świecie prowadzi badania nad zidentyfikowaniem pozostałych, niepoznanych jeszcze przyczyn tej choroby.

   Udar mózgu daje charakterystyczny i łatwy do rozpoznania obraz kliniczny. Choroba pojawia się nagle, czasem w ciągu dnia, czasem podczas snu. Najczęściej objawia się nagłymi zaburzeniami mowy (pacjent mówi niezrozumiałe słowa, lub nie rozumie poleceń), wykrzywieniem twarzy, osłabieniem i/lub zdrętwieniem (nawet w niewielkim stopniu) jednej kończyny lub połowy ciała, zaburzeniami widzenia, zaburzeniami połykania, zawrotami głowy, zaburzeniami świadomości, itp. Warto pamiętać, że chorobie rzadko towarzyszy ból głowy. Często natomiast, szczególnie w początkowym okresie choroby, występuje wysokie ciśnienie tętnicze krwi. Te objawy, pojedynczo lub w różnych kombinacjach, są bezwzględnym wskazaniem do natychmiastowej hospitalizacji. Udokumentowano, że najbardziej korzystnym miejscem leczenia udaru mózgu są tzw. oddziały udarowe, które zatrudniają wielodyscyplinarny zespół przygotowany do specjalistycznego postępowania w tej chorobie. Są tu nie tylko lekarze specjaliści w dziedzinie udaru mózgu (neurolodzy i specjaliści chorób wewnętrznych), ale także wyspecjalizowane pielęgniarki, fizjoterapeuci, osoby prowadzące rehabilitację mowy czy funkcji poznawczych, itd. Leczenie w oddziale udarowym w porównaniu z leczeniem w oddziale ogólnym zmniejsza ryzyko zgonu o 3% i zwiększa odsetek osób samodzielnych po chorobie o 5%.  

   Trzeba podkreślić, że tylko do 4.5 godzin po zachorowaniu można rozpocząć podawanie leku, który leczy udar niedokrwienny przyczynowo rozpuszczając zakrzep w zamkniętym naczyniu mózgowym (tkankowy aktywator plazminogenu podawany dożylnie).  W tym krótkim czasie należy wykonać wiele, często czasochłonnych czynności, tzn. przetransportować pacjenta z domu do szpitala, zebrać wywiad na temat czasu i okoliczności zachorowania, współistniejących chorób, zabiegów operacyjnych, aktualnie stosowanych leków, zbadać pacjenta neurologiczne, monitorować stan ogólny, wykonać badanie tomografii komputerowej. Pacjent musi mieć też pobraną krew na badania biochemiczne, których wyniki także determinują decyzje o włączeniu leczenia. Dość często pacjenci wymagają też farmakologicznego obniżenia ciśnienia tętniczego krwi do wartości poniżej 185/110 mmHg, która jest warunkiem włączenie leczenia fibrynolitycznego. Dlatego też zwlekanie z wezwaniem karetki pogotowia do osoby z objawami udaru znacząco zmniejsza szanse pacjenta na podanie leku. Okazuje się, że to właśnie zbyt długi czas między pojawieniem się objawów a wezwaniem pomocy medycznej jest główną przyczyną opóźnienia podejmowania leczenia udaru. W czasie tych 4.5 pierwszych godzin po zachorowaniu obowiązuje zasada, że im szybsze włączenie leczenia tym większa szansa na jego skuteczność. W Polsce, jak dotąd, do leczenia fibrynolitycznego kwalifikowany jest znikomy odsetek chorych z udarem.

   Niestety u kilku procent leczonych fibrynolitycznie powikłaniem leczenia jest krwawienie wewnątrzczaszkowe. Jednym z czynników ryzyka tego powikłania, oprócz nasilonego deficytu neurologicznego przy zachorowaniu, cukrzycy czy podeszłego wieku jest naruszenie protokołu leczenia, w tym zbyt późne podjęcie leczenia. Stąd konieczne jest ścisłe przestrzeganie okna czasowego dla terapii fibrynolitycznej w udarze. Na pewno rozpowszechnianie wiedzy na temat obrazu klinicznego choroby oraz możliwości terapii przyczynowej tylko na początku choroby może znacząco zwiększyć odsetek leczonych fibrynolityczne w Polsce, tak jak to się stało w krajach Europy Zachodniej i USA.

   Pozostali pacjenci, którzy nie kwalifikują się do leczenia fibrynolitycznego dostają leki przeciwpłytkowe (aspiryna). Udowodniono, że skuteczność aspiryny nie jest zbyt wysoka. Podanie aspiryny do 48 godzin po zachorowaniu powoduje, że na 1000 leczonych, 13 chorych dodatkowo przeżywa chorobę lub funkcjonuje niezależnie na zakończenie obserwacji. Niestety, na 1000 leczonych aspiryną dwie osoby ma powikłanie w postaci krwotoku wewnątrzczaszkowego.  

   Pobyt pacjenta w szpitalu, oprócz włączenia leczenia przyczynowego, (jeśli jest to tylko możliwe) ma także na celu zidentyfikowanie czynników ryzyka choroby i ich leczenie, zidentyfikowanie powikłań choroby (infekcje, zakrzepica żył głębokich i zatorowość płucna, odleżyny, napady padaczkowe, itd.) i ich leczenie, wprowadzenie wczesnej rehabilitacji ruchowej i funkcji poznawczych, a przede wszystkim stwierdzenie przyczyny udaru niedokrwiennego i włączenie leczenia profilaktycznego dla tej konkretnej przyczyny. Każdy chory powinien wyjść ze szpitala z indywidualnym planem dalszego postępowania (tzw. prewencja wtórna udaru).

   Osoby, u których przyczyną udaru jest zator pochodzenia sercowego powinny mieć włączone doustne antykoagulanty. Czasem w indywidualnych przypadkach leki te podaje się też u chorych po udarze z obecnością blaszek miażdżycowych łuku aorty czy w przypadkach rozwarstwienia tętnicy szyjnej wewnętrznej lub wspólnej. Co prawda, przewlekle stosowanie antykoagulantów wymaga regularnego monitorowania wskaźnika INR we krwi (najczęściej rekomendowany zakres w udarze mózgu: 2-3) i może wiązać się z wystąpieniem powikłań krwotocznych, ale w tych wskazaniach antykoagulanty w porównaniu z aspiryną zmniejszają ryzyko nawrotu udaru prawie dwukrotnie.  Pozostali chorzy po udarze niedokrwiennym, tzn., którzy nie wymagają leczenia przeciwkrzepliwego, powinni być leczeni lekami przeciwpłytkowymi (aspiryna lub aspiryna+dipirydamol lub sam klopidogrel). Połączenie aspiryny z klopidogrelem jest zalecane tylko w szczególnych sytuacjach, np. po niedawnym wszczepieniu stentu czy z zawałem serca bez załamka Q. Do niedawna u chorych po udarze statyny były rekomendowane tylko w wybranych przypadkach, tzn. u chorych z podwyższonym poziomem cholesterolu, współistniejącą chorobą niedokrwienną serca lub udarem spowodowanym miażdżycą. Ostatnio, po opublikowaniu wyników badania SPARCL poszerzono wskazania do intensywnej terapii statynami do wszystkich chorych po udarze niedokrwiennym mózgu innym niż udar sercowo-zatorowy.

   Dodatkowo, u osób, u których przyczyną udaru niedokrwiennego mózgu jest miażdżyca tętnicy szyjnej i gdy jej zwężenie wynosi od 70% do 99% zaleca się wykonanie endarterektomii (zabiegu chirurgicznego, który polega na usunięciu blaszek miażdżycowych z tętnic szyjnych).  Można ten zabieg rozważyć też u niektórych osób ze zwężeniem tętnicy 50-69%. Należy pamiętać, że do zabiegu endarterektomii kwalifikują się tylko osoby z niewielkim deficytem neurologicznym, lub bez deficytu po mózgowym incydencie naczyniowym i zabieg ten powinien być wykonany jak najszybciej po zachorowaniu (do 2 tygodni). Najlepiej też, jeśli jest wykonywany w ośrodku, który ma duże doświadczenie w przeprowadzaniu tej procedury.  

   W przypadku przeciwwskazań do endarterektomii (brak dostępu operacyjnego, nawrót zwężenia po przeprowadzonej wcześniej endarterektomii, zwężenie po napromieniowaniu okolicy szyi) można wykonać zabieg przezskórnej angioplastyki wewnątrznaczyniowej i/lub wszczepienie stentu.

   Bardzo ważne jest rozpowszechnienie wiedzy na temat wpływu różnych przewlekłych schorzeń, na przykład cukrzycy, hipercholesterolemii, nadciśnienia tętniczego, migotania przedsionków czy mało aktywnego stylu życia i palenia papierosów na ryzyko wystąpienia pierwszego w życiu udaru mózgu. Wiadomo, że wykrywanie i leczenie chorób stanowiących czynniki ryzyka udaru, a także zaprzestanie palenia papierosów czy zwiększenie aktywności fizycznej znacząco zmniejsza ryzyko choroby (prewencja pierwotna). Na przykład, leczenie nadciśnienia tętniczego zmniejsza ryzyko wystąpienia udaru mózgu o 35-45%. Także leczenie hipercholesterolemii za pomocą statyn czy stosowanie leków przeciwzakrzepowych w migotaniu przedsionków, zmniejsza istotnie ryzyko zachorowania na pierwszy udar mózgu. Udowodniono też, ze aspiryna minimalnie zmniejsza ryzyko wystąpienia pierwszego w życiu udaru niedokrwiennego u kobiet po 45 roku życia, takiej zależności nie wykazano u mężczyzn.

dr hab. med. Agnieszka Słowik, prof. UJ
Oddział Udarowy, Klinika Neurologii, Szpital Uniwersytecki,
ul. Botaniczna 3, 31-503 Kraków

fot. dreamstime


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